Guidelines to Authors

The papers should be original and comprise previously unpublished research. Submission of manuscript implies that the same is not being considered for publication elsewhere.

Online submission of the manuscript is strongly recommended. Submit manuscript in the “Submit Manuscript” button or link present in the journal webpage.

Preparation of Manuscript

The manuscript should be prepared in English using “MS Word” with 1 inch margin on all sides (Top, Bottom, Left and Right side) of the page. “Times New Roman” font should be used. The font size should be of 12pt, but main subheadings may be of 14pt. All plant and microorganisms scientific names should be written in italic. All research articles should be typed 1.5 spacing and should have the following sections: Title page, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgement (if any) and References.

Title Page

The title should appear on a separate page which should then followed by the author name and the institution name and address by indicating suitable superscripts.

  • The full title of the paper is as short as possible without abbreviations or acronyms. The title should be as brief and informative as possible, specifying clearly the content of the article.

  • Full names of authors and their affiliations, of all authors indicating the corresponding author in asterisk mark (*).

  • Corresponding author contact information (address, telephone, e-mail).

   Paper Title: First Letter Capital. 14 point type, Bold.
   Author(s): First Letter Capital, 12 point type, Bold.
   Affiliation(s):Word case, 10 point type.

Corresponding author has the responsibility to ensure that all coauthors are aware and approve the contents of the submitted manuscript.


Should start on a new page after the title page and should be typed in single-space to distinguish it from the Introduction and it should not exceeding 200 words.

Key Words

Provide 4 to 6 appropriate keywords after abstract. These keywords should be typed at the end of the abstract.


It should be a concise statement of the background to the work presented, including relevant earlier work, suitably referenced. It should be started in a separate page after abstract.

Materials and Methods

The main methods used shall be briefly described, citing references. New methods or substantially modified methods may be described in sufficient detail. The statistical method and the level of significance chosen shall be clearly stated.

Results and Discussion

This segment should be describing the results and interpretations of the above experiments. Results and discussion may be separate or combined based on the author’s requirement.


All figures must be referred to in the text and numbered with Arabic numerals in the sequence in which they are cited. Each figure must be accompanied by a legend explaining in detail the contents of the figure and are to be typed under the figures. The photographs must be clear and sharp. Digital files are recommended for highest quality reproduction and should follow the following guidelines.

   300dpi or higher sized to fit journal page.
   JPEG, GIF, TIFF and PDF formats are preferred).
   Acknowledgement (if any).

Legends/Captions for figures

Text type should be 12 point Times Roman italic (eg; Figure 1. Caption). A caption should be provided for each figure. The legend should be typed into the manuscript, directly beneath the figure. Legends are to be listed in numerical order, labeled as “Figure 1”, “Figure 2”, etc.


Tables can be submitted Word as (.doc), Excel (.xls), and PPT formats etc. Each table must contain a brief title of no more than one sentence, placed above the table with the table number (e.g., Table 1). The legend and annotations should be placed on the table. Annotations may be used to explain abbreviations.


Concisely summarizes the principal conclusions of the work and highlights the wider implications. This section should not merely duplicate the abstract.


Acknowledgements as well as information regarding funding sources may be provided.


APA (American Psychological Association) style of reference is the major style guide for the basis of our style of references using in-text and End-of-text.

AFRJBS uses (author and year) short reference system for citations in the text with a detailed alphabetical list at the end of the article (author, year, title). For example "Ashwal (2000) suggests ..." or "Hanson and Langmuir (1995) found that ..." or "A study of economic change (Nelson and Winter, 1982) has shown that ..."

It is imperative to ensure that all works cited in the text are included in the References section.

In-Text Citations

Citations in the text should follow the referencing style. Throughout the text of your paper you need to acknowledge the sources used in your writing. Whenever you present a statement of evidence such as a quote, or when you use someone else's ideas, opinions or theories in your own words (paraphrasing), you must acknowledge your sources. Some examples of how to cite sources within your paper are given below.

One Author

Preston (2010)

Two authors

Use “and” between authors

Cavenagh and Ramadurai (2017) suggested that….

Three or more authors

(Germann et al., 2015)

With an Anonymous author

(Anonymous, 2016)

One author, multiple works published in the same year

If the year of publication is the same for both, add 'a' and 'b' after the year.

(Rush, 2015a, 2015b).

Two or more references in the in-text citation

If you need to cite two or more references in an in-text citation (Allen, 2004; Smith, 1999; Tsvetkova, 2018)


A reference list includes details of the sources cited in your paper. It starts on a separate page at the end of the paper and is titled References.

Examples of Reference Style

Reference to a journal publication

Single Author

Dalton, L.W. (1992). Computer-based image analysis of prostate cancer comments with emphasis on use of commercially available system. Hum Pathol. 23(1): 280-286.

Two Authors

Germann, F. and Grewal, R. (2015). Computer-based image analysis of prostate cancer comments with emphasis on use of commercially available system. Hum Pathol. 23(1): 280-286.

Three or more authors

Use "and" before the final author.

Germann, F., Ebbes, P. and Grewal, R. (2015). Computer-based image analysis of prostate cancer comments with emphasis on use of commercially available system. Hum Pathol. 23(1): 280-286.

Journal article with DOI

Cavenagh, N. and Ramadurai, R. (2017). On the distances between Latin squares and the smallest defining set size. J. of Combl. Degns, 25(4): 147–158.

For Books

King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame. Auckland, New Zealand: Viking.

Dancey, C.P. and Reidy, J. (2004). Statistics without maths for psychology: Using SPSS for Windows (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Book chapter in edited book

Kestly, T. (2010). Group sandplay in elementary schools. In Drewes, A.A. and Shaefer, C.E. (Eds.), School-based play therapy (2nd ed., pp. 257-282). Hoboken, NJ: John Wileys & Sons.

Conference paper online

Bochner, S. (1996, November). Mentoring in higher education: Issues to be addressed in developing a mentoring program. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Singapore. Retrieved from


New Zealand Trade and Enterprise. (n.d.). Agribusiness. Retrieved from

Review Article

Organization of the review article is at the author’s discretion and must be at a length of 3000 words excluding references and abstract. Abstract and keywords are required. Tables, figures, illustrations and references are to be arranged according to research papers.


Submission of the manuscript represent that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere. Corresponding author would be required to sign a CRA form (Copyright Assignment) once the manuscript is accepted which would be sent to the corresponding author’s email. The corresponding author can download the form sign it and can be send as an attachment file through email along with the publication charges.

Ethical Matters

Authors involving in the usage of experimental animals and human subjects in their research article should seek approval from the appropriate Ethical committee in accordance with “Principles of Laboratory Animal Care”. The Method section of the manuscript should include a statement to prove that the investigation was approved and that informed consent was obtained.

Gallery Proofs

Galley proofs would be sent unless indicated otherwise to the corresponding author. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that the galley proofs are to be returned without delay with correction (if any). The authors are responsible for the contents appeared in their published manuscripts.


No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. The respective individual author(s) are responsible for the facts and views expressed in their articles. Authors are solely responsible for their manuscripts and data published in the journals and any mistakes in the published articles. The publisher does not take any such responsibilities. Copying and reproducing any parts of the published articles should be duly acknowledged, otherwise, it will be considered as an offence as per international law.

The Editorial board members/referees/reviewers are honorary position where their contributions to the journal would be acknowledged in each issue.